Customs officials said Francois Jacques Guily was detained Sunday after arriving on a flight from Abu Dhabi via Kuala Lumpur.
They said officers discovered two plastic packs containing 3 kilograms (6.6 pounds) of methamphetamine in his suitcase.
He faces a possible death penalty if found guilty of drug trafficking.
Guily is the second Frenchman arrested in Bali in recent weeks on drug-related charges.
On Jan. 9, Thierry Claude Josep was arrested in Bali's capital, Denpasar, after police seized cocaine worth $47,000 from his pocket. He faces a maximum 20-year jail sentence if found guilty.
Indonesia has extremely strict drug laws and convicted smugglers are often executed. More than 140 people are on death row, mostly for drug crimes. About a third of them are foreigners.