Avelino de Jusus, 30, was arrested in Nong Khai on Sunday at the Thai-Lao border, Immigration Police Comissioner Pol Lt Gen Pharnu Kerdlarpphon told a press conference.
''We have revoked his passports and will extradite him to France soon, since de Jusus has committed no crimes in Thailand,'' Pol Lt Gen Pharnu said.
De Jusus, who holds French and Portuguese nationalities, faces an arrest warrant in France for his alleged involvement in an attempt to smuggle 305 kilogrammes of cocaine into the country in 2012.
Twelve other people have been arrested in connection with the incident.
He left France late last year, heading to China before travelling to Thailand on Nov 6, entering on his Portuguese passport.
The French embassy alerted immigration police to de Jusus's presence in the kingdom on Feb 3, leading to his name being placed on a black list and his arrest Sunday when he attempted to cross the border into Laos, Pol Lt Gen Pharnu said.