Yuri Semenov, 31, was captured at a house on the popular tourist island on Friday, said Pol Maj Gen Apichart Suribunya, chief of Interpol Thailand.
Mr Semenov had escaped an arrest warrant issued by Russian police on charges of involving in a drug network and drug smuggling in Russia.
His name was posted on the Interpol network and he was later found to have fled to Thailand, Pol Maj Gen Apichart said.
Police did not give any other details.
Police are hunting for other Russian criminals living in the country. Pattaya, Samui and Phuket are their main hideouts, he added.