The former deputy premier and foreign minister also wants the speaker of the Senate, Surachai Liangboonlertchai, charged with insurrection for agreeing to consider the possibility of nominating a new interim premier.
Mr Surapong filed a formal complaint on Saturday with police at the Counter Corruption Division. He asked them to charge the nine charter court judges who ruled against Ms Yingluck on May 7 with malfeasance.
The case centred on the transfer in 2011 of Thawil Pliensri as the head of the National Security Council (NSC). The judges ruled that Ms Yingkuck could produce no credible grounds for the transfer, which made room for the brother-in-law of Thaksin Shinawatra to become the national police chief.
The judges said nine ministers who served with Ms Yingluck at the time and approved the transfer were also guilty and must step down. This is the point Mr Surapong is contesting. He says the original complaint, brought by Senator Paibul Nititawan, focused on Ms Yingluck alone.
Mr Surapong said he had not been given a chance to defend his position before the judges.
The former deputy premier also said he would ask the Department of Special Investigation to charge Mr Surachai with insurrection.
He claims the Senate speaker-elect was proposing to break the law by considering the nomination of a new prime minister, and was supporting the anti-government People's Democratic Reform Committee (PDRC).
Several members of the PDRC including leader Suthep Thaugsuban face arrest on insurrection charges.