The Social Development Ministry's budget was passed at 10.3 billion baht, reduced by 560 million baht from its first reading by the bill's ad-hoc scrutiny committee.
The ministry's budget, which was in Section 10 of the Budget Bill, was passed without a vote as the opposition had no objections.
Social Development Minister Pavena Hongsakula was asked by the House to place more emphasis on the welfare of the elderly and to ensure the budget would be spent to improve public well-being.
The debate grew more heated when the House moved to Section 11 of the bill, which outlines the budget for the Agriculture and Cooperatives Ministry.
The section was passed by a vote of 292-135, approving a budget of 76.84 billion baht, down 1.22 billion baht from the initially proposed sum.
Democrat MP for Bangkok Wilat Chanpitak had proposed that the budget be slashed by a further 20%.
He said he doubted that many of the ministry's proposed projects had been carefully considered to ensure they would benefit the public.
Mr Wilat attacked the ministry's proposal to construct a tunnel to divert water from Mae Ngat waterway to Mae Kuang dam in Chiang Mai. The project will cost an estimated 6 billion baht.
He said the scheme did not make sense because the Mae Ngat dam and the Mae Kuang dam were only at 10-20% of their maximum holding capacities.
Concerns about falling crop prices and the government's controversial rice-pledging scheme were also raised as the debate proceeded.
Democrat MP for Phitsanulok Warong Detkitvikrom proposed a 10% cut to the ministry's budget and blasted the inefficiency of the rice-pledging scheme.
He criticised the delay in rice farmers' registration and the planned slashing of the pledging price from 15,000 baht per tonne to 12,000 baht.
He also said the scheme was dissuading farmers from developing new rice strains as they sought to produce large quantities of rice rather than focus on quality.
Agriculture and Cooperatives Minister Yukol Limlaemthong admitted his ministry was unlikely to shore up rubber prices because the market was "controlled" by buyers.
However, he said the National Rubber Committee had devised a short-term solution by asking farmers to form a cooperative and operate a rubber processing facility.
He said the Finance Ministry had tentatively agreed to set aside 5 billion baht to support the scheme and promote the wider use of locally grown rubber. These measures would be submitted to the cabinet for approval next week, he said.
Mr Yukol's comments on the falling prices drew jeers from opposition MPs who pointed out that Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia once worked together to stabilise rubber prices.
Deputy Agriculture Minister Varathep Rattanakorn insisted the government's rice policy is intended to ensure reasonable prices for farmers.
He said the government is also taking steps to prevent abuse by limiting pledging to twice a year.
Mr Varathep said the government has not made a decision on the pledging price for the next crop.
The House also passed Section 12 for the budget of the Transport Ministry worth 99 billion baht by 293 to 121 votes, with 11 abstentions and one no-vote.